Ratliff and Nosek, 2010, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Creating distinct implicit and explicit attitudes with an illusory correlation paradigm
Ratliff, K. A., & Nosek, B. A. (2010). Creating distinct implicit and explicit attitudes with an illusory correlation paradigm. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 721-728. [Request paper]
Two studies used an illusory correlation procedure to test whether distinct implicit and explicit evaluations could result from the same learning episode. All participants learned twice as much about the qualities of one group (majority) than another (minority). In one condition, the ratio of positive to negative information was equal between groups. In other conditions, the majority group showed proportionally more positive qualities than the minority group, or vice versa. Participants in the pro-majority and pro-minority conditions formed both implicit and explicit attitudes consistent with the attitude induction. Participants in the illusory correlation condition showed the expected preference for the majority group (the illusory bias), but showed no implicit preference, suggesting distinct influences on implicit and explicit attitude formation. The effects are consistent with dual-process models wherein implicit attitudes reflect accounting of covariation and explicit attitudes reflect interpretative judgments of that covariation.
Data from studies reported in the article is available for download at Brian Nosek's Dataverse.
Kate Ratliff (Ranganath), Brian Nosek